Elizabeth Cady Stanton, “The Solitude of Self”: Speech to the House Judiciary Committee” (18 February 1892)

EDITORIAL NOTE: Ice on the streets of Washington delayed the arrival of the women scheduled to speak before the House Committee on the Judiciary at ten o’clock on 18 February 1892. While the Washington convention of the National-American carried on its business, committee members heard from ECS, Lucy Stone, Isabella Hooker, and SBA. This was a hearing about Halbert Greenleaf’s Joint Resolution, House Resolution 14, proposing a constitutional amendment extending to women voting rights only in federal elections. The customary woman suffrage amendment was not before the House of Representatives at the time. Nonetheless, according to the Washington Post, ECS opened with an explanation of her topic; “she thought in twenty-four years she had covered everything that could be said on the sixteenth amendment, and wasn’t going to repeat, but would talk on ‘Individuality.’” The text here is that printed to mimic a government document in a pamphlet with other testimony given at the hearing. ECS delivered the speech again at the National-American’s convention, and the Woman’s Tribune published what it described as the speech delivered in the evening of February 18. Differences between the two texts are slight and most of them matters set by style sheets. Any differences in words are indicated in notes. ECS published the speech again in 1901 in the free-thought weekly Boston Investigator. The differences between the late text and those published in 1892 are substantive. Again, the differences are indicated in notes. What cannot be known now is whether the passages new to the 1901 text were recent changes. ECS was virtually blind in 1901; she was not rereading her speeches, nor was she writing for herself. There is some circumstantial evidence that the speeches were read to her, so it is possible that she revised aloud. It is equally possible that the manuscript she sent to the Investigator simply differed from the source used by typesetters in 1892. (Congressional Record, 52d Cong., 1st sess., 5 January 1892, p. 133; Ms minutes, House Committee on the Judiciary, and Washington Post, 19 January 1892, Film, 29:1016, 1025.)

[18 January 1892]

[1] Mr. Chairman[i] and gentlemen of the committee: We have been speaking before Committees of the Judiciary for the last twenty years,
and we have gone over all the arguments in favor of a sixteenth amendment which are familiar to all you gentlemen; therefore, it will not be necessary that I should repeat them again.

[2] The point I wish plainly to bring before you on this occasion is the individuality of each human soul; our Protestant idea, the right of individual conscience and judgment-our republican idea, individual citizenship. In discussing the rights of woman, we are to consider, first, what belongs to her as an individual, in a world of her own, the arbiter of her own destiny, an imaginary Robinson Crusoe with her woman Friday on a solitary island.[ii] Her rights under such circumstances are to use all her faculties for her own safety and happiness.

[3] Secondly, if we consider her as a citizen, as a member of a great nation, she must have the same rights as all other members, according to the fundamental principles of our Government.

[4] Thirdly, viewed as a woman, an equal factor in civilization, her rights and duties are still the same—individual happiness and development.

[5] Fourthly, it is only the incidental relations of life, such as mother, wife, sister, daughter, that may involve some special duties and training. In the usual discussion in regard to woman’s sphere, such men as Herbert Spencer, Frederic Harrison,[iii] and Grant Allen[iv] uniformly subordinate her rights and duties as an individual, as a citizen, as a woman, to the necessities of these incidental relations, some of which a large class of women may never assume.[v] In discussing the sphere of man we do not decide his rights as an individual, as a citizen, as a man by his duties as a father, a husband, a brother, or a son, relations some of which he may never fill. Moreover he would be better fitted for these very relations and whatever special work he might choose to do to earn his bread by the complete development of all his faculties as an individual.

[6] Just so with woman. The education that will fit her to discharge the duties in the largest sphere of human usefulness will best fit her for whatever special work she may be compelled to do.

[7] The isolation of every human soul and the necessity of self-dependence must give each individual the right to choose his own surroundings.

[8] The strongest reason for giving woman all the opportunities for higher education, for the full development of her faculties, forces of mind and body;[vi] for giving her the most enlarged freedom of thought and action; a complete emancipation from all forms of bondage, of custom, dependence, superstition; from all the crippling influences of fear, is the solitude and personal responsibility of her own individual life. The strongest reason why we ask for woman a voice in the government under which she lives; in the religion she is asked to believe; equality in social life, where she is a chief factor;[vii] a place in the trades and professions, where she may earn her bread, is because of her birthright to self-sovereignty; because, as an individual, she must rely on herself. No matter how much women prefer to lean, to be protected and supported, nor how much men desire to have them do so, they must make the voyage of life alone, and for safety in an emergency they must know something of the laws of navigation. To guide our own craft, we must be captain, pilot, engineer; with chart and compass to stand at the wheel; to watch the wind and waves and know when to take in the sail, and to read the signs in the firmament over all.[viii] It matters not whether the solitary voyager is man or woman. Nature having endowed them equally, leaves them to their own skill and judgment in the hour of danger, and, if not equal to the occasion, alike they perish.

[9] To appreciate the importance of fitting every human soul for independent action, think for a moment of the immeasurable solitude of self. We come into the world alone, unlike all who have gone before us; we leave it alone under circumstances peculiar to ourselves. No mortal ever has been, no mortal ever will be like the soul just launched on the sea of life. There can never again be just such a combination of prenatal influences; never again just such environments as make up the infancy, youth, and manhood of this one. Nature never repeats herself, and the possibilities of one human soul will never be found in another. No one has ever found two blades of ribbon grass alike, and no one will ever find two human beings alike. Seeing, then, what must be the infinite diversity in human character, we can in a measure appreciate the loss to a nation when any large class of the people is uneducated and unrepresented in the government. We ask for the complete development of every individual, first, for his own benefit and happiness. In fitting out an army we give each soldier his own knapsack, arms, powder, his blanket, cup, knife, fork and spoon. We provide alike for all their individual necessities, then each mall bears his own burden.

[10] Again we ask complete individual development for the general good; for the consensus of the competent on the whole round of human interests; on all questions of national life, and here each man must bear his share of the general burden. It is sad to see how soon friendless children are left to bear their own burdens[ix] before they can analyze their feelings; before they can even tell their joys and sorrows, they are thrown on their own resources. The great lesson that nature seems to teach us at all ages is self-dependence, self-protection, self-support. What a touching instance of a child’s solitude; of that hunger of the heart for love and recognition, in the case of the little girl who helped to dress a Christmas tree for the children of the family in which she served. On finding there was no present for herself she slipped away in the darkness and spent the night in an open field sitting on a stone, and when found in the morning was weeping as if her heart would break. No mortal will ever know the thoughts that passed through the mind of that friendless child in the long hours of that cold night, with only the silent stars to keep her company. The mention of her case in the daily papers moved many generous hearts to send her presents, but in the hours of her keenest suffering she was thrown wholly on herself for consolation.[x]

[11] In youth our most bitter disappointment,[xi] our brightest hopes and ambitions are known only to ourselves; even our friendship and love we never fully share with another; there is something of every passion in every situation we conceal. Even so in our triumphs and our defeats.[xii] The successful candidate for the Presidency and his opponent each have a solitude peculiarly his own, and good form forbids either to speak of his pleasure or regret. The solitude of the king on his throne and the prisoner in his cell differs in character and degree, but it is solitude nevertheless.

[12] We ask no sympathy from others in the anxiety and agony of a 
broken friendship or shattered love. When death sunders our nearest
 ties, alone we sit in the shadow of our affliction. Alike mid the greatest 
triumphs and darkest tragedies of life we walk alone. On the divine 
heights of human attainments, eulogized and worshiped as a hero or 
saint, we stand alone. In ignorance, poverty, and vice, as a pauper or
criminal, alone we starve or steal; alone we suffer the sneers and rebuffs
of our fellows; alone we are hunted and hounded through dark courts
and alleys, in by-ways and highways; alone we stand in the judgment
seat; alone in the prison cell we lament our crimes and misfortunes; alone we expiate them on the gallows. In hours like these we realize the
awful solitude of individual life, its pains, its penalties, its responsibilities; hours in which the youngest and most helpless are thrown on their own resources for guidance and consolation. Seeing then that life must ever be a march and a battle, that each soldier must be equipped for his own protection, it is the height of cruelty to rob the individual of a single natural right.[xiii]

[13] To throw obstacles in the way of a complete education is like putting out the eyes; to deny the rights of property, like cutting off the hands. To deny political equality is to rob the ostracised of all self-respect; of credit in the market place; of recompense in the world of work; of a voice in those who make and administer the law; a choice in the jury before whom they are tried, and in the judge who decides their punishment. Shakespeare’s play of Titus and Andronicus contains a terrible satire on woman’s position in the nineteenth century[xiv]—“Rude men” (the play tells us) “seized the king’s daughter, cut out her tongue, cut off her hands, and then bade her go call for water and wash her hands.” What a picture of woman’s position. Robbed of her natural rights, handicapped by law and custom at every turn, yet compelled to fight her own battles, and in the emergencies of life to fall back on herself for protection.

[14] The girl of sixteen, thrown on the world to support herself, to make her own place in society, to resist the temptations that surround her and maintain a spotless integrity, must do all this by native force or superior education. She does not acquire this power by being trained to trust others and distrust herself. If she wearies of the struggle, finding it hard work to swim upstream, and allows herself to drift with the current, she will find plenty of company, but not one to share her misery in the hour of her deepest humiliation. If she tries to retrieve her position, to conceal the past, her life is hedged about with fears lest willing hands should tear the veil from what she fain would hide. Young and friendless, she knows the bitter solitude of self.

[15] How the little courtesies of life on the surface of society, deemed so important from man towards woman, fade into utter insignificance in view of the deeper tragedies in which she must play her part alone, where no human aid is possible.

[16] The young wife and mother, at the head of some establishment with a kind husband to shield her from the adverse winds of life, with wealth, fortune and position, has a certain harbor of safety, secure against the ordinary ills of life. But to manage a household, have a desirable influence in society, keep her friends and the affections of her husband, train her children and servants well, she must have rare common sense, wisdom, diplomacy, and a knowledge of human nature. T o do all this she needs the cardinal virtues and the strong points of character that the most successful statesman possesses.

[17] An uneducated woman, trained to dependence, with no resources in herself must make a failure of any position in life. But society says women do not need a knowledge of the world; the liberal training that experience in public life must give, all the advantages of collegiate education; but when for the lack of all this, the woman’s happiness is wrecked, alone she bears her humiliation; and the solitude of the weak and the ignorant is indeed pitiable. In the wild chase for the prizes of life they are ground to powder.[xv]

[18] In age, when the pleasures of youth are passed, children grown up, married and gone, the hurry and bustle of life in a measure over, when the hands are weary of active service, when the old armchair and the fireside are the chosen resorts, then men and women alike must fall hack on their own resources. If they cannot find companionship in books, if they have no interest in the vital questions of the hour, no interest in watching the consummation of reforms, with which they might have been identified, they soon pass into their dotage. The more fully the faculties of the mind[xvi] are developed and kept in use, the longer the period of vigor and active interest in all around us continues. If from a lifelong participation in public affairs a woman feels responsible for the laws regulating our system of education, the discipline of our jails and prisons, the sanitary condition of our private homes, public buildings, and thoroughfares, an interest in commerce, finance, our foreign relations, in any or all these questions, her solitude will at least be respectable, and she will not be driven to gossip or scandal for entertainment.

[19] The chief reason for opening to every soul the doors to the whole round of human duties and pleasures is the individual development thus attained, the resources thus provided under all circumstances to mitigate the solitude that at times must come to everyone. I once asked Prince Krapotkin,[xvii] a Russian nihilist, how he endured his long years in prison, deprived of books, pen, ink, and paper. “Ah,” he said, “I thought out many questions in which I had a deep interest. In the pursuit of an idea I took no note of time. When tired of solving knotty problems I recited all the beautiful passages in prose or verse I had ever learned. I became acquainted with myself and my own resources. I had a world of my own, a vast empire, that no Russian jailor or Czar could invade.” Such is the value of liberal thought and broad culture when shut off from all human companionship, bringing comfort and sunshine within even the four walls of a prison cell.

[20] As women ofttimes share a similar fate, should they not have all the consolation that the most liberal education can give? Their suffering in the prisons of St. Petersburg; in the long, weary marches to Siberia, and in the mines, working side by side with men, surely call for all the self-support that the most exalted sentiments of heroism can give.[xviii] When suddenly roused at midnight, with the startling cry of “fire! fire!” to find the house over their heads in flames, do women wait for men to point the way to safety? And are the men, equally bewildered and half suffocated with smoke, in a position to do more than try to save themselves?

[21] At such times the most timid women have shown a courage and heroism in saving their husbands and children that has surprised everybody. Inasmuch, then, as woman shares equally the joys and sorrows of time and eternity, is it not the height of presumption in man to propose to represent her at the ballot box and the throne of grace, to do her voting in the state, her praying in the church, and to assume the position of high priest at the family altar?

[22] Nothing strengthens the judgment and quickens the conscience like individual responsibility. Nothing adds such dignity to character as the recognition of one’s self-sovereignty; the right to an equal place, everywhere conceded; a place earned by personal merit, not an artificial attainment, by inheritance, wealth, family, and position. Seeing, then, that the responsibilities of life rest equally on man and woman, that their destiny is the same, they need the same preparation for time and eternity. The talk of sheltering woman[xix] from the fierce storms of life is the sheerest mockery, for they beat on her from every point of the compass, just as they do on man, and with more fatal results, for he has been trained to protect himself, to resist, to conquer. Such are the facts in human experience, the responsibilities of individual sovereignty. Rich and poor, intelligent and ignorant, wise and foolish, virtuous and vicious, man and woman, it is ever the same, each soul must depend wholly on itself.

[23] Whatever the theories may be of woman’s dependence on man, in the supreme moments of her life he can not bear her burdens. Alone she goes to the gates of death to give life to every man that is born into the world. No one can share her fears, no one can mitigate her pangs; and if her sorrow is greater than she can bear, alone she passes beyond the gates into the vast unknown.

[24] From the mountain tops of Judea, long ago, a heavenly voice bade His disciples “Bear ye one another’s burden,”[xx] but humanity has not yet risen to that point of self-sacrifice and if ever so willing, how few the burdens are that one soul can bear for another. In the highways of Palestine; in prayer and fasting on the solitary mountain top; in the Garden of Gethsemane; before the judgment seat of Pilate; betrayed by one of His trusted disciples at His last supper; in His agonies on the cross, even Jesus of Nazareth, in those last sad days on earth, felt the awful solitude of self. Deserted by man, in agony he cries, “My God! My God! why hast Thou forsaken me?”[xxi] And so it ever must be in the conflicting scenes of life, in the long, weary march, each one walks alone. We may have many friends, love, kindness, sympathy, and charity to smoothe our pathway in everyday life, but in the tragedies and triumphs of human experience each mortal stands alone.[xxii]

[25] But when all artificial trammels are removed, and women are
recognized as individuals, responsible for their own environments, thoroughly educated for all positions in life they may be called to fill; with all the resources in themselves that liberal thought and broad culture can give; guided by their own conscience and judgment; trained to self-protection by a healthy development of the muscular system and skill in the use of weapons of defense, and stimulated to self-support by a knowledge of the business world and the pleasure that pecuniary independence must ever give; when women are trained in this way they will, in a measure, be fitted for those hours of solitude that come alike to all, whether prepared or otherwise. As in our extremity we must depend on ourselves, the dictates of wisdom point to complete individual development.

[26] In talking of education how shallow the argument, that each class must be educated for the special work it proposes to do, and all those faculties not needed in this special work must lie dormant[xxiii] and utterly wither for want of use, when, perhaps, these will be the very faculties needed in life’s greatest emergencies. Some say, Where is the use of drilling girls in the languages, the sciences, in law, medicine, theology? As wives, mothers, housekeepers, cooks, they need a different curriculum from boys who are to fill all positions. The chief cooks in our great hotels and ocean steamers are men. In our large cities men run the bakeries; they make our bread, cake and pies. They manage the laundries; they are now considered our best milliners and dressmakers. Because some men fill these departments of usefulness, shall we
regulate the curriculum in Harvard and Yale to their present necessities? If not, why this talk in our best colleges of a curriculum for girls who are crowding into the trades and professions; teachers in all our public schools, rapidly filling many lucrative and honorable positions in life? They are showing, too, their calmness and courage in the most trying hours of human experience.

[27] You have probably all read in the daily papers of the terrible storm in the Bay of Biscay when a tidal wave made such havoc on the shore, wrecking vessels, unroofing houses, and carrying destruction every-where.[xxiv] Among other buildings the woman’s prison was demolished. Those who escaped saw men struggling to reach the shore.[xxv] They promptly by clasping hands made a chain of themselves and pushed out into the sea, again and again, at the risk of their lives, until they had brought six men to shore, carried them to a shelter, and did all in their power for their comfort and protection.

[28] What special school training could have prepared these women for this sublime moment in their lives? In times like this humanity rises above all college curriculums and recognizes Nature as the greatest of all teachers in the hour of danger and death.[xxvi] Women are already the equals of men in the whole realm of thought, in art, science, literature, and government. With telescopic vision they explore the starry firmament and bring back the history of the planetary world.[xxvii] With chart and compass they pilot ships across the mighty deep, and with skillful finger send electric messages around the globe. In galleries of art the beauties of nature and the virtues of humanity are immortalized by them on canvas and by their inspired touch dull blocks of marble are transformed into angels of light.

[29] In music they speak again the language of Mendelssohn, Beethoven, Chopin, Schumann,[xxviii] and are worthy interpreters of their great thoughts. The poetry and novels of the century are theirs, and they have touched the keynote of reform in religion, politics, and social life. They fill the editor’s and professor’s chair, and plead at the bar of justice, walk the wards of the hospital, and speak from the pulpit and the platform; such is the type of womanhood that an enlightened public sentiment welcomes to-day, and such the triumph of the facts of life over the false theories of the past.

[30] Is it, then, consistent to hold the developed woman of this day within the same narrow political limits as the dame with the spinning wheel and knitting needle occupied in the past? No! no! Machinery has taken the labors of woman as well as man on its tireless shoulders; the loom and the spinning wheel are but dreams of the past; the pen, the brush, the easel, the chisel, have taken their places, while the hopes and ambitions of women are essentially changed.

[31] We see reason sufficient in the outer conditions of human beings for individual liberty and development, but when we consider the self dependence of every human soul we see the need of courage, judgment, and the exercise of every faculty of mind and body, strengthened and developed by use, in woman as well as man.[xxix]

[32] Whatever may be said of man’s protecting power in ordinary conditions, mid all the terrible disasters by land and sea, in the supreme moments of danger, alone woman must ever meet the horrors of the situation; the Angel of Death even makes no royal pathway for her. Man’s love and sympathy enter only into the sunshine of our lives. In that solemn solitude of self, that links us with the immeasurable and the eternal, each soul lives alone forever. A recent writer says:[xxx]

I remember once, in crossing the Atlantic, to have gone upon the deck of the ship at midnight, when a dense black cloud enveloped the sky, and the great deep was roaring madly under the lashes of demoniac winds. My feeling was not of danger or fear (which is a base surrender of the immortal soul), but of utter desolation and loneliness; a little speck of life shut in by a tremendous darkness. Again I remember to have climbed the slopes of the Swiss Alps, up beyond the point where vegetation ceases, and the stunted conifers no longer struggle against the unfeeling blasts. Around me lay a huge confusion of rocks, out of which the gigantic ice peaks shot into the measureless blue of the heavens, and again my only feeling was the awful solitude.

And yet, there is a solitude, which each and every one of us has always carried with him more inaccessible than the ice-cold mountains, more profound than the midnight sea; the solitude of self. Our inner being, which we call ourself, no eye nor touch of man or angel has ever pierced. It is more hidden than the caves of the gnome; the sacred adytum of the oracle; the hidden chamber of eleusinian mystery, for to it only omniscience is permitted to enter.

[33] Such is individual life. Who, I ask you, can take, dare take, on [begin page 434] himself the rights, the duties, the responsibilities of another human soul?

Hearing of the Woman Suffrage Association Before the Committee on Judiciary, Monday, January 18, 1892, (N.p., n.d.), 1-5, in ECS Papers, DLC.



[i] David Browning Culberson (1830-1900), Democrat of Texas and former 
officer in the Confederate army, served in the House of Representatives from 1875 to 1897. He became chairman of the House Judiciary Committee at opening of the first session of the Fifty-second Congress, Ten Democrats, six of them southerners, and five Republicans made up the committee. Ezra Taylor of Ohio and Case Broderick of Kansas were strong supporters of woman suffrage. (BDAC.)

[ii] A reference to the fictional narrator of Daniel Defoe’s novel Robinson Crusoe (1719), by the heart of which is Crusoe’s account of a solitary existence on a South American island after a shipwreck. Friday, the name Crusoe gave to a prisoner he freed from the control of pirates, became his companion and servant.

[iii] Frederic Harrison (1831-1923), a follower of Auguste Comte and president of London’s Positivist Society, had recently lectured on “Woman’s True Function,” which he defined as “personal and not general, domestic and not public: … working through the imagination rather than through reason, by the heart rather than by the head.” Women achieved their highest purpose, in the family, within the family, while outside of it they risked becoming “abortive men.” (Oxford DNB; Times [London], 7 September 1891.)

[iv] Grant Blairfindie Allen (1848-1899), a Canadian who settled in England, was a follower of Herbert Spencer, known first for his scientific writing and later for his novels. To an upsurge of antisuffragism in England in 1889, he contributed “Plain Words on the Woman Question,” declaring “that in the best-ordered community almost every woman should marry at twenty or thereabouts” and bear four children in order for the species to reproduce itself. The movement for woman’s rights had misguidedly “subordinated the claims of the wives and mothers to the claims of the unmarried women.” (Oxford DNB; Popular Science Monthly 21 [December 1889]: 170-81.)

[v] In the Woman’s Tribune, this reads, “neither of which a large class of women may ever assume,” and the following sentence ends “relations he may never fill.” In the Boston Investigator, the latter sentence ends, “some of which he might never fill.”

[vi] Investigator reads, “her faculties and forces of mind and body”.

[vii] Both variants read, “where she is the chief factor.”

[viii] Investigator reads: “the signs of coming storms in the firmament over


[ix] Investigator reads: “their own burdens. Before they can analyze”.

[x] The paragraph continues in Investigator: “When a girl may marry legally at twelve years of age, and barter away all that is most precious to pure and innocent girlhood at the age of ten, you may as well talk of her safety with wild beasts in the tangled forests of Africa as in the present civilizations of England and America, the leading nations on the globe. These desecrated and degraded thus early, learn the bitter solitude of self.”

[xi] Investigator reads, “one’s most bitter disappointments”.

[xii] Investigator reads, “in every situation we conceal, alike in our triumphs and our defeats.”

[xiii] Investigator reads, “a single natural right, and the greatest of these is an equal voice in the Government under which we live.”

[xiv] William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, act 2, sc. 4, lines 960-69. The source of ECS’s synopsis is unknown.

[xv] The paragraph continues in Investigator: “Every day our journals report the wreck of some circle in high life, in which the trusted custodians of social morality and family honor have sacrificed all to personal vanity. Every individual has an ambition to excel in some direction, and so long as a large class of women are trained simply for fashionable life, to dress with taste and attract attention, the foundations of home life must be as unstable as the sands of the sea.”

[xvi] Investigator reads: “The more fully all the faculties of the mind”.

[xvii] Pyotr Alekseyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921), known as Prince Kropotkin, was a Russian revolutionary and anarchist philosopher, who lived in England from 1886 to 1917. In 1887 he published In Russian and French Prisons, recounting his own prison time. ECS called on Kropotkin in London in 1888. (Eighty Years, 409-10.)

[xviii] In Investigator, the sentence ends, “the most exalted sentiments of

patriotism can give.” A paragraph is then inserted: “Two women from high life in England have just been sentenced to solitary confinement for a term of years. They have fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, but none of these can minister now to their needs nor share their solitude. Alone they shudder over the past, and look with dread into the dark and weary days to come, What are the fine-spun theories of man’s protecting power to them now?”

[xix] Investigator reads, “they need the same preparation. To talk of sheltering woman”.

[xx] Gal. 6:2.

[xxi] ECS names events in the final days of the life of Jesus, ending with his words from the cross, from Matt. 27:46 and Mark 16:34.

[xxii] Investigator reads, “but in the tragedies that belong to all human experiences, each mortal stands alone.”

[xxiii] Both printings of the speech in 1892 read, “those faculties not needed in this special walk must lie dormant.” A correction was made in the 1901 printing.

[xxiv] This story might be recent: the eastern shores of Ireland, England, France, Spain, and Portugal endured immense damage from unusual hurricane-force winds that swept across the Atlantic in early November 1891. The Bay of Biscay was hit on November 11. (Monthly Weather Review 19 [November 1891]: 264-65; New York Times, 12, 13 November 1891.)

[xxv] Investigator reads, “Those who escaped, standing on the beach, saw men struggling to reach the shore.”

[xxvi] In Investigator, the next sentence reads, “Women are already the equals of men in courage and heroism.” The text then omits three sentences and resumes at “In music”.

[xxvii] In this and the following sentence, retained in the Tribune, the final nouns are switched; the first ends, “bring back the history of the planetary spheres”; the second ends, “send electric messages around the world.”

[xxviii] The German composers Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), and Robert Alexander Schumann (1810-1856), and the Polish composer Frédéric François Chopin (1810-1849).

[xxix] Investigator reads, “but when we consider the self-dependence of every human soul in all the tragedies of life, we see the need of courage, judgment, independence, skill, in the exercise of every faculty of mind and body strengthened and developed by use in woman, as well as man.”

[xxx] ECS recycled this quotation from her address 27 May 1881 to the Free Religious Association, in Papers 4:85. Although she md1cated m both instances that she quoted someone, the words are widely attributed to her. Her source is as yet undiscovered.


Textual Authentication


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