Suggested Readings

Alexander, Shawn Leigh. An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.

Carroll, Rebecca, ed. Uncle Tom or New Negro? African Americans Reflect on Booker T. Washington and Up from Slavery 100 Years Later. New York: Harlem Moon, 2006.

Deutsch, Stephanie. You Need a Schoolhouse: Booker T. Washington, Julius Rosenwald, and the Building of Schools for the Segregated South. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 2011.

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches. Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1903.

Green, Hilary. Educational Reconstruction: African American Schools in the Urban South, 1865–1890. New York: Fordham University Press, 2016.

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901. London: Oxford University Press, 1972.

———. Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901–1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Hamilton, Kenneth M. Booker T. Washington in American Memory. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2017.

Heath, Robert L. “A Time for Silence: Booker T. Washington in Atlanta.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 64 (1978): 385–399.

Jackson Jr., David H. Booker T. Washington and the Struggle Against White Supremacy: The Southern Educational Tours, 1908–1912. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.

Jackson Jr., David H. A Chief Lieutenant of the Tuskegee Machine: Charles Banks of Mississippi. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002.

King, Andrew W. “Booker T. Washington and the Myth of Heroic Materialism.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 323–327.

Lindsey, Donal F. Indians at Hampton Institute, 1877–1923. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995.

Norrell, Robert J. Up from History: The Life of Booker T. Washington. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2009.

Perdue, Theda. Race and the Atlanta Cotton States Exposition of 1895. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010.

Smock, Raymond W. Booker T. Washington: Black Leadership in the Age of Jim Crow. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2009.

Stob, Paul. “Black Hands Push Back: Reconsidering the Rhetoric of Booker T. Washington.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 104 (2018): 145–165.

———. Intellectual Populism: Democracy, Inquiry, and the People. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2020.

Verney, Kevern. The Art of the Possible: Booker T. Washington and Black Leadership in the United States, 1881–1925. New York: Routledge, 2001.

Vivian, Bradford J. “Up from Memory: Epideictic Forgetting in Booker T. Washington’s Cotton States Exposition Address.” Philosophy & Rhetoric 45 (2012): 189–212.

West, Michael Rudolph. The Education of Booker T. Washington: American Democracy and the Idea of Race Relations. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

Audio-Visual Materials

“Booker T. Washington Mini Biography.”

“Booker T. Washington—Tuskegee Institute.” U.S. National Parks Service.

“The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom. Booker T. Washington’s ‘Atlanta Compromise’ Speech.” Library of Congress.

“Fred L. Howe 1895 Cotton States and International Exposition Photographs.” Atlanta History Center,

“Lifting the Veil of Ignorance Statue in Tuskegee.” Encyclopedia of Alabama.

Online Resources

“African American Odyssey: Atlanta Exposition Speech.” Library of Congress.

“Booker T. Washington and the ‘Atlanta Compromise.’” National Museum of African American History and Culture. February 08, 2018.

“Dr. Booker Taliaferro Washington.” Tuskegee University

“Official Guide to the Cotton States and International Exposition.” Smithsonian Libraries.

“Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site.” U.S. National Parks Service.