Beale, Howard K.  Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power.  Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1956.

Behl, William.  “Theodore Roosevelt’s Principles of Invention.”  Speech Monographs 12 (1945): 93-110.

—.  “Theodore Roosevelt’s Principles of Speech Preparation and Delivery.”  Speech Monographs 12 (1945): 112-122.

Beltz, Lynda.  “Theodore Roosevelt’s ‘Man with the Muckrake.'” Central States Speech Journal 20 (1969): 97-103.

Brands, H. W. T. R.: The Last Romantic.  New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Buehler, Daniel O.  “Permanence and Change in Theodore Roosevelt’s Conservation Jeremiad.”  Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 439-458.

Cassady, Edward E. “Muckraking in the Gilded Age.” American Literature 13 (1941):  134-141.

Chalmers, David M. The Social and Political Ideas of the Muckrakers.  New York: Citadel Press, 1964.

—.  The Muckrake Years. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1974.

Cooper, Michael L. Up Close. Theodore Roosevelt: A Twentieth-Century Life.  New York: Viking, 2009.

Dalton, Kathleen. Theodore Roosevelt: A Strenuous Life. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.

Dorsey, Leroy G.  We are All Americans, Pure and Simple: Theodore Roosevelt and the Myth of Americanism. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007.

—.  “Preaching Morality in Modern America: Theodore Roosevelt’s Rhetorical Progressivism.” In Rhetoric and Reform in the Progressive Era. Vol. 6. Edited by J. Michael Hogan. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003.

—.  “Sailing into the ‘Wondrous Now’: The Myth of the American Navy’s World Cruise.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 83 (1997): 447-465.

—.  “The Frontier Myth in Presidential Rhetoric: Theodore Roosevelt’s Campaign for Conservation.” Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 1-19.

—.  “Theodore Roosevelt and Corporate America, 1901-1909: A Re-Examination.” Presidential Studies Quarterly 25 (1995): 725-740.

Dorsey, Leroy G., and Rachel M. Harlow.  “‘We Want Americans Pure and Simple’: Theodore Roosevelt and the Myth of Americanism.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 6 (2003): 55-78.

Dyer, Thomas. Theodore Roosevelt and the Idea of Race. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980.

Endres, Kathleen L. “Muckraking: A Term Worth Redefining.” American Journalism 14 (1997): 333-335.

Filler, Louis. The Muckrakers. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.

—.  The Age of the Muckrakers. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1976.

Friedenberg, Robert V. Theodore Roosevelt and the Rhetoric of Militant Decency. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Geiger, Louis G. “Muckrakers–Then and Now.” Journalism Quarterly 43 (1966): 469-476.

Grantham, Dewey W., ed. Theodore Roosevelt.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1971.

Grenier, Judson A. “Muckraking and the Muckrakers: An Historical Definition.” Journalism Quarterly 37 (1960): 552-558.

Grondahl, Paul. I Rose Like a Rocket: The Political Education of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Free Press, 2004.

Harbaugh, William H. The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt, Rev. ed. New York: Collier Books, 1963.

Harrison, John M., and Harry Stein, eds.  Muckraking: Past, Present, and Future. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1973.

Hogan, J. Michael.  The Panama Canal in American Politics: Domestic Advocacy and the Evolution of Policy. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1986.

Judis, John B. The Folly of Empire: What George W. Bush Could Learn from Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. New York: Scribner, 2004.

Kraig, Robert A. “The 1912 Election and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Liberal State.”  Rhetoric & Public Affairs 3 (2000): 363-395.

Lewis, William D. The Life of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: United Publishers, 1919.

Lucas, Stephen E. “Theodore Roosevelt’s ‘The Man with the Muck-Rake’: A Reinterpretation.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 452-462.

Marolda, Edward J. Theodore Roosevelt, the U.S. Navy, and the Spanish-American War. New York: Palgrave, 2001.

Miller, Nathan. Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Harper Perennial, 1994.

Morris, Edmund. Theodore Rex. New York: Random House, 2001.

—.  The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc. 1979.

Mowry, George E. The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America. New York: Harper and Row, 1958.

Murphy, Richard. “Theodore Roosevelt.” In A History and Criticism of American Public Address. Edited by Marie Hochmuth. Vol. 3. New York: Longman’s Green, 1955. 313-364.

Neuzil, Mark. “Hearst, Roosevelt, and the Muckrake Speech of 1906: A New Perspective.” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 73 (1996): 29-39.

Norton, Aloysius A.  Theodore Roosevelt.  Boston, MA: Twayne, 1980.

Pringle, Henry S. Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1931.

Putnam, Carleton. Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography. New York: Scribner, 1958.

Rieger, Cornelius C. The Era of the Muckrakers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1932.

Riis, Jacob A. Theodore Roosevelt, The Citizen. New York: The Outlook Company, 1904; Chestnut Hill, MA: Adamant Media Corp., 2004.

Roosevelt, Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan, 1913.

—.  The Rough Riders. 1899; New York: Signet Classic, 1961.

—.  The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses.  New York: The Century Co., 1901.

—.  The Works of Theodore Roosevelt.  National Edition. 20 vols. New York: Charles Scriber’s Sons, 1926.

Semonche, John E. “Theodore Roosevelt’s ‘Muck-rake Speech’: A Reassessment.” Mid- America 46 (1964): 114-125.

Serrin, Judith, and William Serrin, eds. Muckraking: The Journalism that Changed America. New York: The New Press, 2002.

Shapiro, Herbert, ed.  The Muckrakers and American Society. Boston: D. C. Heath, 1968.

Tichi, Cecilia. Exposés and Excesses: Muckraking in America, 1900-2000. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.

Walker, Dale L. The Boys of ’98: Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders. New York: Forge Books, 1999.

Weinberg, Arthur, and Lila Weinberg, eds. The Muckrakers. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2001.

Audio-Visual Materials

De Vries, Richard.  Theodore Roosevelt–An American Lion. New York: A&E Home Video, 2003. Video Recording.

Engle, Harrison. The Indomitable Teddy Roosevelt.  Chatsworth, CA: Image Entertainment, 1999. Video Recording.

Grubin, David.  TR. Atlanta: Turner Home Entertainment, 1997. Video Recording.

Grubin, David.  American Experience: TR: The Story of Theodore Roosevelt.  Alexandria, VA: PBS Paramount, 2006. Video Recording.

Theodore Roosevelt: Roughrider to Rushmore. New York: A&E Home Video, 2004.  Video Recording.

On-Line Resources

“American President: An Online Reference Resource.” Theodore Roosevelt. Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia, academic/americanpresident/roosevelt.

“Life of Theodore Roosevelt.” Theodore Roosevelt Association,

“Theodore Roosevelt Collection Manuscripts.” Theodore Roosevelt Collection, Houghton Library, Harvard University, houghton/collections/roosevelt.html.

“Theodore Roosevelt: His Life and Times on Film.” Library of Congress,

“Theodore Roosevelt Papers.” Library of Congress,

Last updated May 16, 2016