“The Strenuous Life” (10 April 1899), a machine-readable edition
Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919)

edited by
Leroy G. Dorsey


Voices of Democracy
Voices of Democracy: The U. S. Oratory Project

Department of Communication,
2130 Skinner Building,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 21774

Brief notes on the text are included in the editorial
declaration of this header.

Roosevelt, Theodore. 1899. “Speech By Gov. Roosevelt: Famous Leader of the ‘Rough Riders’ Addresses the Assemblage on ‘The Strenuous Life.’ Chicago; April 11, 1899; Chicago Tribune (1849-1985). [=A]
Roosevelt, Theodore. 1899. “The Strenuous Life.” In Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life: Essays and Addresses. New York: The Century Co. 1901. [=B]


This copy-text Roosevelt (=A) was printed by the Chicago Tribune
the day after the delivered speech. The timing of its publication increases the likelihood that this version most closely reflects the content of his speech at the time it was initially delivered.

The text of this edition has been thoroughly checked and proofread. All double quotations are rendered with “, all single quotations with an apostrophe ‘. This copy-text is not subject to end-of-line hyphenation. Paragraph numbers have been added in square brackets.

Standard date values are given in ISO form: yyyy-mm-dd.

Characteristics of interpretation of this edition are as follows:
Proper names are not marked.
Dates are not marked.
Emphasis is marked without interpretation.

Departures from the copy-text and general editorial procedures are as follows:
Version (=B), published in 1901, two years after the speech was initially delivered, is used in the analysis only when referencing paragraph 3, which was inserted into the speech text once it was published by Theodore Roosevelt. Endnotes rather than parenthetical references are inserted in the essay to cite paragraph 3 found in (=B) to clearly designate the reference to the 1901 version (=B). Version (=B) was published originally in 1901 and again in the 1911 edition of Roosevelt’s speeches. It is the version used by the Theodore Roosevelt Association, an organization “founded in 1919 and chartered by Congress in 1920 to preserve the memory and ideals of the 26th President of the United States”-see http://www.theodoreroosevelt.org. Version (=B) has minor word changes from version (=A). These changes either emphasize certain ideas or provide readers a clearer understanding of certain time periods referred to in the speech. Beyond referencing paragraph 3 from version (=B), the essay cites version (=A) exclusively. Both the 1899 and 1901 versions are included within this unit.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Library of Congress Classification

10 April 1899
Hamilton Club
Chicago, Illinois


United States
Politics and Government
Colonial Question



VOD Associate Editor
Gaines, Robert N.

Created TEI header and xml conformant file. Validated on 25 March 2006 in XMetal 3.1.3 against teixlite.dtd (version 2004-07-16)


Dorsey, Leroy G.

Edited, proofread, and compiled texts.