Allen, Danielle S. Talking to Strangers: Anxieties of Citizenship Since Brown v. Board of Education. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Arnett, Ronald C. “Civic Rhetoric—Meeting the Communal Interplay of the Provincial and the Cosmopolitan: Barack Obama’s Notre Dame Speech, May 17, 2009.” Rhetoric & Public Affairs 14 (2011): 631-672.

Belkin, Douglas. “Notre Dame’s Invitation to Obama Sparks Protests and Soul-Searching.” Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2009,

Benson, Thomas W. “The Rhetoric of Civility: Power, Authenticity, and Democracy.” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 1 (2011): 22-30.

Bone, Jennifer Emerling, Cindy L. Griffin, and T. M. Linda Scholz. “Beyond Traditional  Conceptualizations of Rhetoric: Invitational Rhetoric and a Move Toward Civility.” Western Journal of Communication 72 (2008): 434-462.

Carter, Stephen L. Civility: Manners, Morals, and the Etiquette of Democracy. New York: Harper Perennial, 1998.

Crowley, Sharon. Toward a Civil Discourse: Rhetoric and Fundamentalism. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.

Enos, Theresa J. “A Call for Comity.” In Renewing Rhetoric’s Relation to Composition: Essays in Honor of Theresa Jarnagin Enos. Ed. Shane Borrowman, Stuart C. Brown, and   Thomas P. Miller. New York: Routledge, 2010, 207-235.

Foss, Sonja K., and Cindy L. Griffin. “Beyond Persuasion: A Proposal for an Invitational Rhetoric.” Communication Monographs 62 (1995): 2-18.

Gutmann, Amy, and Dennis Thompson. Why Deliberative Democracy? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004.

Herbst, Susan. Rude Democracy: Civility and Incivility in American Politics. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 2010.

Lozano-Reich, Nina M., and Dana L. Cloud. “The Uncivil Tongue: Invitational Rhetoric and the Problem of Inequality.” Western Journal of Communication 73 (2009): 220-226.

Makau, Josina M., and Debian L. Marty. Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, 2001.

Miller, Joshua Rhett. “Critics Blast Obama’s Scheduled Notre Dame Commencement Address.”, March 24, 2009,

Obama, Barack. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Vintage, 2006.

“Pomp and Circumstance: Obama to Speak at Notre Dame Graduation, Stirring Controversy on Campus.” Chicago Tribune, May 14, 2009,

Tannen, Deborah. The Argument Culture: Moving From Debate to Dialogue. New York:  Random House, 1998.

Wolffe, Richard. Renegade: The Making of a President. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2009.

Audio-Visual Materials

“Can We Talk? A Conversation about Civility and Democracy in America.” National Constitution Center, March 2011,

“Civility and Politics.” C-SPAN, July 16, 2012,

Jenkins, John. “Commencement 2009: Rev. John I. Jenkins, C.S.C., Notre Dame President’s Commencement Address,” May 17, 2009,

Nyks, Kelly. Split: A Divided America. Distributed by Split Films, 2008. Video Recording.

On-Line Resources

Center for Democratic Deliberation,

Civil Conversation Project,

GriffinHarte Foundation,

Institute for Civility in Government,

National Institute for Civil Discourse,

“Opposing Viewpoints in Context.” Michigan e-Library,

Last updated May 6, 2016