Baker, Paula. “The Domestication of Politics: Women and the American Political Society, 1780-1920.” American Historical Review 89 (1984): 620-647.

Borda, Jennifer L. “The Woman Suffrage Parades of 1910 – 1913: Possibilities and Limitations of an Early Feminist Rhetorical Strategy.” Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 25-52.

DuBois, Ellen Carol. Harriot Stanton Blatch and the Winning of Woman Suffrage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

Finnegan, Margaret. Selling Suffrage: Consumer Culture and Votes for Women. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Ford, Linda. Iron-Jawed Angels: The Suffrage Militancy of the National Woman’s
Party, 1912-1920
. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1991.

Graham, Sara Hunter. Woman Suffrage and the New Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Garner, Les. Stepping Stones to Women’s Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women’s Suffrage Movement, 1900-1918. London: Heinmann Educational Books, 1984.

Hill, Jeff. Women’s Suffrage. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2006.

Jeydel, Alana S. “The Impact of the Activist President on the Lobbying Efforts of the Woman Suffrage Movement.” White House Studies 2 (2002): 271-286.

Harrison, Patricia Greenwood. Connecting Links: The British and American Woman Suffrage Movements, 1900-1914. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.

King, Brayden G., Marie Cornwall, and Eric C. Dahlin. “WinningWoman Suffrage One Step at a Time: Social Movements and the Logic of the Legislative Process.”Social Forces. 83 (2005): 1211-1234.

Kowal, Donna M. “One Cause, Two Paths: Militant vs. Adjustive Strategies in the British and American Women’s Suffrage Movements.” Communication Quarterly 48 (2000): 240-255.

Lumsden, Linda J. Rampant Women: Suffragists and the Right of Assembly. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1998.

Lumsden, Linda J. Inez: The Life and Times of Inez Milholland. Bloomington: Indiana
University Press, 2004.

Marilley, Suzanne M. Woman Suffrage and the Origins of Liberal Feminism in the United States, 1820-1920. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press, 1996.

Marshall, Susan E. Splintered Sisterhood: Gender and Class in the Campaign Against Woman Suffrage. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1997.

McCammon, Holly J. “Stirring Up Suffrage Sentiment: The Formation of the State Woman Suffrage Organizations, 1866-1914.” Social Forces 80 (2001): 449-480.

McCammon, Holly J, “‘Out of the Parlors and Into the Streets’: The Changing Tactical Repertoire of the U.S. Women’s Suffrage Movements.” The Sociological Quarterly 81 (2003): 787-818.

McCammon, Holly J., Lyndi Hewitt, and Sandy Smith. “‘No Weapon Save Argument’: Strategic Frame Amplification in the U.S. Woman Suffrage Movements.” The Sociological Quarterly 45 (2004): 529-556.

O’Neill, William. Everyone Was Brave: A History of Feminism in America. Chicago,
IL: Quadrangle, 1971.

Ramsey, E. Michele. “Addressing Issues of Context in Historical Women’s Public Address.” Women’s Studies in Communication 27 (2004): 353-377.

Ramsey, E. Michele. “Driven From the Public Sphere: The Conflation of Women’s Liberation and Driving in Advertising From 1910 to 1920.”  Women’s Studies in Communication. 29 (2006): 88-112.

Ramsey, E.M.  “Inventing citizens during World War I: Suffrage Cartoons in The Woman Citizen.” Western Journal of Communication. 64 (2000): 113-147.

Solomon, M. M. (Ed). A Voice of their Own: The Woman Suffrage Press, 1840-1910. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991.

Triece, Mary E. “Rhetoric and Social Change: Women’s Struggles for Economic and Political Equality, 1900 – 1917.” Women’s Studies in Communication 42 (1991): 238-260.

Zacharis, J. C. “Emmeline Pankhurst: An English Suffragette Influences America.” Communication Monographs 38 (1971): 198-206.

Dissertations and Theses

Baumgartner, Lisa Marie. Alice Paul, the National Woman’s Party, and a Rhetoric of Mobilization. Dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1994.

Behn, Beth A. Woodrow Wilson’s Conversion Experience: The President, the Woman Suffrage Movement, and the Extent of Executive Influence. M. A. Thesis, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.

Benson, Jane. The Militant Persuasion: Leaders of the National Woman’s Party and the National American Woman Suffrage Association. M. A. Thesis, Kent State University, 1984.

Durnford, Stephanie L. “We Shall Fight for the Things We Have Always Held Nearest Our Hearts”: Rhetorical Strategies in the U. S. Woman Suffrage Movement. M. A. Thesis, University of Montana, 2005.

Ellis, Patricia Lynn. Radicals in the Fight for Suffrage: The National Woman’s Party. M. A. Thesis, Wake Forest University, 1989.

McGraw, Stephanie Koester. From Mainstream to Militant: A Study of Mabel Vernon’s Suffrage Activities. M. A. Thesis, Sonoma State University, 2001.

Metz, Tabitha M. Schism in the Suffrage Campaign: How the Division Between NWP and NAWSA Led to Woman’s Suffrage. M. A. Thesis, S.U.N.Y. College at Brockport, 2005.

Audio-Video Resources

Alice Paul: We Were Arrested Of Course. New York: E.P.H. Productions, 1995. Video Recording.

Byker, Carl, and Mitch Wilson. Woodrow Wilson. Los Angeles, CA: KCET Hollywood
Production/Red Hill Productions and PBS: The American Experience, 2001.

Méliès, George. For the Cause of Suffrage. IMDb:, 1909. On-line Video Recording.

Pollak, Ruth. One Woman, One Vote: Rediscovering the Woman Suffrage Movement. Troutdale, OR: New Sage Press, 1995. Video Recording.

von GarnierKatja. Iron Jawed Angels. New York: HBO Video, 2004. Video Recording.

Weaver, Kay, and Martha Wheelock. Votes For Women. Ishtar Films, On-line Video Recording.

Online Resources

American Women Through Time, 1910 – 1919,

“Conversations With Alice Paul: Woman Suffrage and the Equal Rights Amendment,” Interview Conducted by Amelia R. Fry, Suffragists Oral History Project, Online Archive of California,

In addition to the slideshow of photographs discussed in the Teaching Strategies section, HBOFilms has a nice series of historical timelines at their suffrage history website,

“Motherhood, Social Service, and Political Reform: Political Culture and Imagery of American Woman Suffrage,” The National Women’s History Museum, (particularly nice is the section containing 50 images/items used to communicate and “sell” the concept of suffrage),

National Woman’s Party Papers, Research Collections in Women’s Studies, ProQuest,

National Women’s Hall of Fame – Women of the Hall, Alice Paul,

“Speaker for Suffrage and Petitioner for Peace: Mabel Vernon,” Interview Conducted by Amelia R. Fry, Suffragists Oral History Project, Online Archive of California,

“Women Suffragettes Visit TR at Sagamore Hill,” Hearst-Pathe News (1917), available through the Library of Congress American Memory,

The Alice Paul Institute,

“Woodrow Wilson,” The American Experience,

Last updated July 5, 2016