“Gettysburg Address,” a machine-readable edition
Lincoln, Abraham (1809-1865)

edited by
Bjørn F. Stillion Southard


Voices of Democracy
Voices of Democracy: The U. S. Oratory Project

Department of Communication,
2130 Skinner Building,
University of Maryland,
College Park, MD 21774

Brief notes on the text are included in the editorial
declaration of this header.

Lincoln, Abraham. “Address Delivered at the Dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg,” c. February, 1864, reproduced in Long Remembered: Facsimiles of the Five Versions of the Gettysburg Address in the Handwriting of Abraham Lincoln. David C. Mearns and Lloyd A. Dunlap, eds. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1963. [=A]
Lincoln, Abraham. “Address Delivered at the Dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg,” in The Papers of Abraham Lincoln [online]. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Last updated June 1, 2007. http://www.papersofabrahamlincoln.org/Gettysburg%20Address.htm. [=B]
Lincoln, Abraham. “Dedicatory Speech by President Lincoln,” in Address of Hon. Edward Everett at the Consecration of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg, 19th November, 1863, with the Dedicatory Speech of President Lincoln, and the Other Exercises of the Occasion; Accompanied by an Account of the Origin of the Undertaking and of the Arrangement of the Cemetery Grounds, and by a Map of the Battle-Field and Plan of the Cemetery. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1864. 84. [=C]
Nicolay, John G. and John Hay. Abraham Lincoln: A History, vol. 8. New York: The Century Co., 1890. [=D]


The copy-text is Lincoln 1864 [=A], what is often called the “Bliss text,” (named as such because Lincoln sent this handwritten and signed copy to a Colonel Alexander Bliss who was to lithograph the speech for sale at the Baltimore Sanitary Fair in 1864). This text was reproduced in facsimile form in Lincoln 1963 [=A] as well as on The Papers of Abraham Lincoln website, maintained by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency [=B]. The criterion for this selection is that the Bliss text is the most often cited and reproduced version of the speech. The Bliss text’s popularity is likely because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated this version. Furthermore, it was the last copy of the speech reproduced by Lincoln. The pagination and spelling from this version have been maintained.

The text of this edition has been thoroughly checked and proofread. All double quotations are rendered with “, all single quotations with an apostrophe ‘. This copy-text is not subject to end-of-line hyphenation. Paragraph numbers have been added in square brackets.

Standard date values are given in ISO form: yyyy-mm-dd.

Characteristics of interpretation of this edition are as follows:
Proper names are not marked.
Dates are not marked.
Emphasis is marked without interpretation.

Departures from the copy-text and general editorial procedures: none.

Library of Congress Subject Headings

Library of Congress Classification

15 March 1965
Dedication of Gettysburg Cemetary
Gettysburg, PA


Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865
Lincoln, Abraham, 1809-1865 – – Oratory
Gettysburg, Battle of, Gettysburg, Pa., 1863
Soldiers’ National Cemetary (Gettysburg, Pa.)



VOD Associate Editor
Gaines, Robert N.

Created TEI header and xml conformant file. Validated on 25 March 2006 in XMetal 3.1.3 against teixlite.dtd (version 2004-07-16)


Stillion Southard, Bjørn F.

data entry, editing, proof reading of electronic text


Stillion Southard, Bjørn F.

further compilation of electronic text