Aptheker, Bettina. “Woman Suffrage and the Crusade Against Lynching, 1890-1920.” Woman’s Legacy: Essays on Race, Sex, and Class in American History. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982. 

Avery, Rachel Foster, ed. Transactions of the National Council of Women of the United States. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, 1891. 

Davis, Elizabeth Lindsay. Lifting as They Climb. New York: G. K. Hall, 1996.

Giddings, Paula. When and Where I Enter: The Impact of Black Women on Race and Sex in America.New York: Bantam, 1984. 

Harper, Frances.“The Democratic Return to Power—Its Effect?” African Methodist Episcopal Church Review I (1884-1885): 222-225. 

Lauter, Paul. “Is Frances Ellen Watkins Harper Good Enough to Teach?” Legacy: A Journal of Nineteenth-Century American Women Writers 5.1 (Spring 1988): 27-32. 

Logan, Shirley Wilson. We are Coming: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. 

Loewenberg, Bert J. and Bogin, Ruth, eds. Black Women in Nineteenth-Century American Life: Their Words, Their Thoughts, Their Feelings. University Park: Pennsylvania University Press, 1976. 

Nero, Charles I. “Oh, What I Think I Must Tell This World!” Oratory and Public Address of African-American Women. Black Women in AmericaEd. Kim Marie Vaz. London: Sage, 1995, 261-75.

O’Connor, Lillian. Pioneer Women Orators: Rhetoric in the Ante-Bellum Reform Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954. 

Phillips, Christopher. Freedom’s Port: The African-American Community of Baltimore, 1790-1860. Illinois: University of Illinois Press, 1997.

Rydell, Robert W. “The World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893: Racist Underpinnings of a Utopian Artifact.” Journal of American Culture 1.2 (Summer 1978): 253-75.

Sterling, Dorothy. We are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Norton, 1984.

Terrell, Mary Church. “Lynching from a Negro’s Point of View.” North American Review 178 (June 1904): 853-868.

Wells, Ida B. Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells. Ed. Alfreda M. DusterChicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Yellin, Jean Fagin. Women and Sisters: The Antislavery Feminists in American Culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.

Audio-Visual Materials

Burns, Ken, and Lynn Novick. Jazz.Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 2000. Video Recording.

James, Dante J. Slavery and the Making of America, Vol. 4: “The Challenge of Freedom.” New York: Ambrose Video Recording, 2005. Video Recording. 

Pollak, Ruth. One Woman. One Vote. Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 1999. Video Recording. 

Taylor, Paul. Reconstruction: The Second Civil War. Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 2004. Video Recording.

On-Line Resources

Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000

Harper, Frances. Chapter XXX, “Friends in Council” (p. 255), Iola Leroy, or, Shadows Uplifted. New York: The Digital SchomburgThe New York Public Library. File number 1997wwm97248.sgm. 1997,

“History Matters: The U. S. Survey Course on the Web.” Center for History and New Media, George Mason University,

Interactive Guide to the World’s Columbian Exposition,

Reed, Christopher Robert. “The Black Presence at ‘White City’: African and African American Participation at the World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, May 1, 1893 October 31, 1893″ Paul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection.

“Remarks of Mrs. Julia B. Nelson, of Minnesota.” Report of Hearing before the Committee on Woman Suffrage, January 28, 1896. Votes for Women: Selections from the National American Woman Suffrage Association Collection, 1848-1921,

“The WTCU and the Lynching Controversy.” Teaching Future Historians,

The World’s Columbian Exposition. The Chicago Historical Society,

The World’s Columbian Exposition: Idea, Experience, Aftermath,

Last updated May 4, 2016