Asch, Chris Myers.  The Senator and the Sharecropper: The Freedom Struggles of James O. Eastland and Fannie Lou Hamer.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

Barnett, Bernice McNair.  “Invisible Southern Black Women Leaders in the Civil Rights Movement: The Triple Constraints of Gender, Race, and Class.”  Gender & Society 7 (1993): 162-82.

Beito, David, and Linda Royster Beito.  Black Maverick: T. R. M. Howard’s Fight for Civil Rights and Economic Power.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Belfrage, Sally. Freedom Summer. New York: Viking, 1965.

Blackwell, Unita.  Barefootin’: Life Lessons from the Road to Success.  New York: Crown, 1996.

Bond, Julian, and Andrew Lewis, eds.  Gonna Sit at the Welcome Table. 2d ed.  Mason, OH: Thomson, 2002.

Bramlett-Solomon, Sharon.  “Civil Rights Vanguard in the Deep South: Newspaper Portrayal of Fannie Lou Hamer, 1964-1977.”  Journalism Quarterly 68 (1991): 515-521.

Carney Smith, Jessie, ed. Epic Lives: One Hundred Black Women Who Made a Difference. Detroit: Visible Ink Press, 1993.

Cobb, James C.  The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Davis, Townsend.  Weary Feet, Rested Souls: A Guided History of the Civil Rights Movement.  New York: Norton, 1998.

DeMuth, Jerry.  “Fannie Lou Hamer: Tired of Being Sick and Tired. The Nation, June 1, 1964, 548-551.

Dittmer, John.  Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994.

Dollard, John.  Caste and Class in a Southern Town.  New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1937.

Erenrich, Susie, ed.  Freedom is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Montgomery,AL: Black Belt, 1999.

Evans, Sarah.  Personal Politics: The Roots of Women’s Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left.  New York: Vintage, 1979.

Fosl, Catherine.  “Anne Braden, Fannie Lou Hamer, and Rigoberta Menchu: Using Personal Narrative to Build Activist Movements.”  In Telling Stories to Change the World.  Ed., Rickie Solinger, Madeline Fox, and Kayhan Irani.  New York: Routledge, 2008, 217-226.

Forman, James. The Making of Black Revolutionaries. Seattle: Open Hand, 1985.

Glaude Jr., Eddie S. Exodus! Religion, Race, and Nation in Early Nineteenth-Century Black America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Gregg, Richard B.  “The Ego-Function of the Rhetoric of Protest.”  Philosophy & Rhetoric 4 (1971): 71-91.

Griffin-Jeuchter, Kay. “Fannie Lou Hamer: From Sharecropper to Freedom Fighter,” MA Thesis, Sarah Lawrence College, 1990.

Griffin, Farah Jasmine. “DNC Day 4: Remembering Fannie Lou Hamer,” from Conventional Wisdom, National Public Radio Transcript, August 29, 2008. Available Online,

Hamer, Fannie Lou.  To Praise Our Bridges: An Autobiography of Mrs. Fanny [sic] Lou Hamer.  Jackson, MS: KIPCO, 1967.

_____. “It’s In Your Hands.”  In Black Women in White America: A Documentary History.  Ed. Gerda Lerner. New York: Vintage, 1972, 609-614.

Hamlet, Janice D.  “Fannie Lou Hamer: The Unquenchable Spirit of the Civil Rights Movement.”  Journal of Black Studies 26 (1996): 560-576.

Harkey, Ira B.  The Smell of Burning Crosses: An Autobiography of a Mississippi Newspaperman.  Jacksonville, IL: Harris-Wolfe, 1967.

Hogan, Wesley C.  Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC’s Dream for a New America.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Holland, Endesha Ida Mae.  From the Mississippi Delta.  New York: Lawrence Hill, 1999.

Holsaert, Faith S., Martha Prescod Norman Noonan, Judy Richardson, Betty Garman Robinson, Jean Smith Young, and Dorothy M. Zellner, ed.  Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Houck, Davis W., and Matthew A. Grindy.  Emmett Till and the Mississippi Press.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2008.

Houck, Davis W., and David E. Dixon, ed.  Rhetoric, Religion, and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965.  Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2006.

_____, ed.  Woman and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2009.

Howard-Pitney, David. The Afro-American Jeremiad: Appeals for Justice in America. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1990.

Irons, Jenny.  “The Shaping of Activist Recruitment and Participation: A Study of Women in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement.”  Gender & Society 12 (1998): 692-709.

Johnson, Susan.  “Fannie Lou Hamer: Mississippi’s Grassroots Organizer.”  Black Law Journal 2 (1972): 154-162.

Jordan, June.  Fannie Lou Hamer.  New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972.

King, Edwin. “Go Tell it on the Mountain: A Prophet from the Delta.” Sojourners 11 (1982): 87.

Kling, Susan. Fannie Lou Hamer: A Biography.New York: Women for Racial and Economic Equality, 1979.

Lee, Chana Kai.  For Freedom’s Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

_____.  “Anger, Memory and Personal Power: Fannie Lou Hamer and Civil Rights Leadership.”  In Sisters in the Struggle: African American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement.  Ed., Bettye Collier-Thomas and V. P. Franklin.  New York: New York University Press, 2001, 139-170.

Lewis, Earl M.  “The Negro Voter in Mississippi.”  The Journal of Negro Education 26 (1957): 329-350.

Locke, Mamie E.  “The Role of African-American Women in the Civil Rights and Women’s Movements in Hinds County and Sunflower County, Mississippi.”  Journal of Mississippi History 53 (1991): 229-239.

_____.  “Fannie Lou Hamer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.” In Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941-1965.  Ed., Vicki L. Crawford, Jacqueline Anne Rouse and Barbara Woods.  Brooklyn, NY: Carlson, 1990, 27-37.

Marsh, Charles.  God’s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

McGuire, Danielle L.  “‘It Was like All of Us Had Been Raped’: Sexual Violence, Community Mobilization, and the African American Freedom Struggle.”  The Journal of American History 91 (2004): 906-931.

McMillen, Neil.  Dark Journey: Black Mississippians in the Age of Jim Crow.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

_____.  The Citizens’ Councils: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-1964.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Mills, Kay.  This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer.  New York: Plume, 1994.

Moody, Anne.  Coming of Age in Mississippi.  New York: Laurel, 1968.

Moye, J. Todd.  Let the People Decide: Black Freedom and White Resistance Movements in Sunflower County, Mississippi, 1945-1986.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.

O’Dell, J. H.  “Life in Mississippi: An Interview with Fannie Lou Hamer.”  Freedomways 5 1965: 231-242.

Olson, Lynne.  Freedom’s Daughters: The Unsung Heroines of the Civil Rights Movement from 1830 to 1970.  New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001.

Ono, Kent, and John Sloop.  “The Critique of Vernacular Discourse.”  Communication Monographs 62 (1995): 19-46.

Parker Brooks, Maegan.  “Oppositional Ethos: Fannie Lou Hamer and the Vernacular Persona.”  Rhetoric & Public Affairs 15 (2012),  Forthcoming.

Parker Brooks, Maegan, and Davis W. Houck, ed.  The Speeches of Fannie Lou Hamer: To Tell It Like It Is.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2011.

Payne, Charles M.  I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle.  Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Pipes, William Harrison.  Say Amen, Brother!  Old-Time Negro Preaching: A Study in Frustration.  New York: William Frederick, 1951.

Powdermaker, Hortense.  After Freedom: A Cultural Study in the Deep South.  New York: Viking, 1938.

Reagon, Bernice Johnson.  “Women as Culture Carriers in the Civil Rights Movement: Fannie Lou Hamer.”  In Women in the Civil Rights Movement: Trailblazers and Torchbearers, 1941-1965.  Ed., Vicki L. Crawford, Jacqueline Anne Rouse, and Barbara Woods.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993, 203-232.

Reed, Linda.  “Fannie Lou Hamer: A New Voice in American Democracy.”  In Mississippi Women: Their Histories, Their Lives.  Ed., Martha H. Swain, Elizabeth Anne Payne and Marjorie Julian Spruill.  Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2003, 249-267.

Robnett, Belinda.  African-American Women in the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965: Gender, Leadership, and Micromobilization.”  American Journal of Sociology 101 (1996): 1661-1693.

Rubel, David. Fannie Lou Hamer: From Sharecropping to Politics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Silver Burdett, 1990.

Sugarman, Tracy.  Stranger at the Gates: A Summer in Mississippi.  New York: Hill and Wang, 1966.

Watson, Bruce.  Freedom Summer: The Savage Season that Made Mississippi Burn and America a Democracy.  New York: Viking, 2010.

Watters, Pat, and Reese Cleghorn.  Climbing Jacob’s Ladder: The Arrival of Negroes in Southern Politics.  New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1971.

White, Eugene F.  “Anti-Racial Agitation in Politics: James Kimble Vardaman in the Mississippi Gubernatorial Campaign of 1903.”  Journal of Mississippi History 7 (1945): 91-130.

Audio-Visual Materials

Buckley, Bill, and Tracy Sugarman.  Never Turn Back: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer.  Westport, CT: Rediscovery Productions, 1983.

Davenport, Joseph Delbert.  M.F.D.P.  Tallahassee, FL: Manship Films, 2010.

Famous Human Rights Crusaders: Ida B. Wells, Fannie Lou Hamer. Venice, CA: TMW Media Group, 2009.

Fannie Lou Hamer funeral, March 20, 1977, by Jane Petty and Patti Carr Black, Trans Video, Ltd., MP81.2, Tape 1 and 2, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Mississippi.

Field, Connie and Marilyn Mulford.  Freedom on My Mind.  Berkeley, CA: Clarity, 1994.

Johnson Reagon, Bernice. Voices of the Civil Rights Movement: Black American Freedom Songs, 1960-1966. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Folkways Recording, 1980.

Lewis, John, Rex Barnett, and Tom Weinberg. Fannie Lou Hamer: Everyday Battle. Atlanta, GA: History on Video, 1999.

Sadoff, Joan, Robert Sadoff, and Laura J. Lipson.  Standing on My Sisters’ Shoulders.  New York: WMM, 2003.

Stewart, Brian, Rex Barnett, and Paula Jowers. Fannie Lou Hamer: Voting Rights Activist. Venice, CA: TMW Media Group, 2009.

On-Line Resources

The Mississippi Sovereignty Commission.  Mississippi Department of Archives and History,

Fannie Lou Hamer, Oral History, University of Southern Mississippi,

Fannie Lou Hamer, Testimony before the Democratic National Convention Credentials Committee, August 22, 1964, Atlantic City, New Jersey,

Fannie Lou Hamer, Speech at a Vietnam War Moratorium Rally in Berkeley, California, 1965[sic]* and

Repaying Our Ancestors Respectfully, Fannie Lou Hamer Website,

*This speech is mis-cited by Pacifica Archives. It was given in 1969. For correct date and transcription, see: Parker Brooks, Maegan, and Davis W. Houck, ed.  The Speeches of Fannie Lou Hamer: To Tell It Like It Is.  Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2011.

Last updated May 4, 2016