Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958.

Bacevich, Andrew J. The New American Militarism. How Americans Are Seduced By War. New York: Oxford, 2005.

Baer, Robert. See No Evil. The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA’s War on Terrorism. New York: Crown, 2002.

Buckley, Mary, and Robert Singh, eds. The Bush Doctrine and the War on Terrorism: Global Responses, Global Consequences. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Bennett, William J. Why We Fight: Moral Clarity and the War on Terrorism. New York: Regnery, 2003.

Bush, George W. A Charge to Keep. New York: Morrow, 1999.

—. “We Will Prevail.” President George W. Bush on War, Terrorism, and Freedom. New York: National Review, 2003.

Clark, Richard. Against All Enemies. Inside America’s War on Terror. New York: Free Press, 2004.

Dawes, James. The Language of War. Literature and Culture in the U.S. from the Civil War through World War II. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Dolan, Chris J., and Betty Glad, eds. Striking First: The Preventive War Doctrine and the Reshaping of U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Donnelly, Thomas. The Military We Need: The Defense Requirements of the Bush Doctrine. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute Press, 2005.

Fukuyama, Francis. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press, 1992.

Gaddis, John Lewis. Surprise, Security, and the American Experience. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2004.

Gardner, Lloyd C., and Marilyn B. Young, eds. The New American Empire. A 21st Century Teach-in on U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: The New Press, 2005.

Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Ignatieff, Michael. “The Burden.” New York Times Magazine. 5 January 2003. 22-27, 50, 53-54.

Jacobson, Gary C. A Divider, Not a Uniter: George W. Bush and the American People. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007.

Kaplan, Lawrence, and William Kristol. The War over Iraq: Saddam’s Tyranny and America’s Mission. San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2003.

Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Trans. and ed., Robert A. Adams. New York: Norton, 1977.

Orwell, George. “Politics and the English language.” <>  (14 July 2006). Horizon, 1946.

Singer, Peter. The President of Good and Evil. The Ethics of George W. Bush. New York: Dutton, 2004.

Walzer, Michael. Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books, 1997.

Woodward, Bob. Bush at War. New York: Doubleday, 2002.

—. Plan of Attack. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004.

Zelizer, Barbie, and Stuart Allan, eds. Journalism After September 11. London: Routledge, 2002.

Audio-Visual Materials

“Bush’s Doctrine of Preemptive Self-Defense.” Philosophy Talk.

Audio recording of a San Francisco radio program supported by the Stanford University Department of Philosophy featuring guest Professor George Lucas, US Naval Academy, 2004. Video Recording.

Gaghan, Steven. Syriana. Burbank, CA: Warner Brothers Entertainment, 2006. Video Recording.

Greenwald, Robert. Uncovered: The Whole Truth about the Iraq War. New York: Disinformation Co.,, The Center for American Progress, Artists United, 2004. Video Recording.

Moore, Michael. Fahrenheit 9/11. Culver City, CA: Lion’s Gate Films, 2004. Video Recording.

“The War Behind Closed Doors.” Frontline. Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 2003. Video Recording.

“West Point Sends her Men to War!” Newsreel of George C. Marshall addressing the January 1942 graduating class of West Point. National Archives and Records Administration. January 1, 1942. Newsreel Recording.

On-Line Resources

Ackerman, David M. “International Law and the Preemptive Use of Force Against Iraq.” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. RS21314. 17 March 2003.

The Avalon Project of Yale Law School. Documents in Law, History, and Diplomacy, 1996-2005.

Castro, Fidel. “Fidel Castro on the 18th Brumaire of Mr. Bush.” Remarks by Dr. Fidel Castro Ruz, President of the Republic of Cuba, at a Rally held in General Antonio Maceo Square. Santiago de Cuba. 8 June 2002.

“Chronology: The Evolution of the Bush Doctrine.” Background material for the PBS Frontline program “The War Behind Closed Doors.” (2003).

“The National Security Strategy of the United States of America.” September 2002. (accessed May 24, 2006).

“Ending Our Dependence on Oil: An American Security Project.” Sierra Club.

“Recent Scholarship.”

“Striking First.” On-line NewsHour. July 1, 2002. (accessed March 24, 2016).

West Point Graduates against the War. “Laws and treaties violated by President George W. Bush, Vice-President Richard Cheney, public officials under their authority, and members of the U.S. military under their command.”

Last updated March 24, 2016