Acton, William. Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive Organs in Childhood, Youth, Adult Age and Advanced Life. 8th ed. Philadelphia: P. Blakistan and Sons, 1894.

Allamong, Kathryn. “The Sexual Habits of American Women Examined before Kinsey.” American Heritage 32 (1981): no pages. Available at:

Clark, Edward. Sex in Education: A Fair Chance for Girls. Boston: James R. Osgood and Company, 1873.

Degler, Carl. “What Ought to be and What was: Women’s Sexuality in the Nineteenth Century,” American Historical Review 79 (1974): 1467-1490.

Griego, Elizabeth Brownlee. “A Part and Yet Apart: Clelia Duel Mosher and the Professional Women at the Turn-of-the-Century.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1983.

Griego, Elizabeth. “The Making of a ‘Misfit’: Clelia Duel Mosher 1863-1940.” In Lone Voyagers: Academic Women in Coeducational Universities 1870-1940. Ed. Geraldine Jonich Clifford, 149-182. New York: Feminist Press, 1989.

Mosher, Clelia Duel. Functional Periodicity in Women and Some of the Modifying Factors.  San Francisco: California Medical Association, 1911.

_____. Health and the Woman Movement. New York: National Board Young Women’s Christian Association, 1918.

_____. Personal Hygiene for Women. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1927.

_____. A Physiologic Treatment of Congestive Dysmenorrhea and Kindred Disorders Associated with the Menstrual Function. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1914.

_____. Woman’s Physical Freedom. New York: Woman’s Press, 1923.

Mjagkij, Nina and Margaret Spatt, eds. Men and Women Adrift: The YWCA in the City. New York: New York University Press, 1997.

Parker, Kathleen. “Clelia Duel Mosher and the Change in Women’s Sexuality.” In The Human Tradition in American 1865 to Present. Ed. Charles W. Calhoun, 65-82. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 2003.

Robertson, Nancy Marie. Christian Sisterhood, Race Relations, and the YWCA, 1906-1946.  Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Rosenberg, Rosalind. Beyond Separate Spheres: Intellectual Roots of Modern Feminism. New York: Yale University Press, 1982.

Rossiter, Margaret. “’Women’s Work’ in Science, 1880-1910,” Isis 71 (1980):381-398.

Schneider, Dorothy and Carl J. Schneider. American Women in the Progressive Era, 1900-1920. New York: Facts on File, 1993.

Simms, Mary S. The YWCA: An Unfolding Purpose. New York: Women’s Press, 1950.

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. Disorderly Conduct: Visions of Gender in Victorian America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985.

Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll. “Sexuality and Madness.” Social Research 53 (1986): 283-309.

Vostral, Sharra. “Reproduction, Regulation  and Body Politics,” Journal of Women’s History 15 (2003): 197-206.

Audio-Visual Materials

The Progressive Era. New York: Films Media Group, 2003. Video Recording.

The Progressive Era. Chicago: Media Rich Communications, 2004. Video Recording.

The Progressive Era. Los Angeles: INTELECOM intelligent Telecommunications, 2004. Video Recording.

The Progressive Era. New York: Agency for Instructional Technology, 2006, streaming video.

Online Resources

“Clelia, Duel Mosher.”,

“Dr. Clelia Duel Mosher: Women’s Sexuality and Equal Rights Advocate.” Women in Medicine Legacy Foundation,

“The Progressive Era.” Encyclopedia Britannica,

“Progressive Era to New Era.” Library of Congress.

“Young Mens Christian Association.” VCU Libraries Social Welfare History Project,