Altgeld, John Peter. Our Penal Machinery and Its Victims. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg & Company, 1886.

Baatz, Simon. For the Thrill Of It: Leopold, Loeb and the Murder that Shocked Chicago. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2008.

Bowers, John Waite. “Deliberative Speech in a Forensic Context: Andrew Hamilton at the Peter Zenger Trial.” Communication Studies 16 (1965): 164-172.

Darrow, Clarence. Crime: Its Cause and Treatment. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1922. (Available at

Darrow, Clarence. Farmington. Chicago, IL: A.C. McClurg, 1904.

Darrow, Clarence. The Story of My Life. New York: Scribner’s, 1932.

Do Human Beings Have Free Will? A Debate. Affirmative: George Burman Foster, Negative: Clarence Darrow. Girard, KS: Haldeman-Julius, 1928.

Farrell, John A. Clarence Darrow: Attorney for the Damned. New York: Vintage Books, 2011.

Fass, Paula S, ed. “Making and Remaking an Event: The Leopold and Loeb Case in American Culture.” In Children of a New World: Society, Culture, and Globalization, 106-140. New York: New York University Press, 2007.

Franklin, Paul B. “Jew Boys, Queer Boys: Rhetorics of Antisemitism and Homophobia in the Trial of Nathan ‘Babe’ Leopold Jr. and Richard ‘Dickie’ Loeb.” In Queer Theory and the Jewish Question. Ed. Daniel Boyarin, Daniel Itzkovitz, and Ann Pellegrini, 121-148. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.

Higdon, Hal. Leopold and Loeb: The Crime of the Century. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Howe, Scott W. “Reassessing the Individualization Mandate in Capital Sentencing: Darrow’s Defense of Leopold and Loeb.” Iowa Law Review 79 (1994): 989-1071.

Jasinski, James, ed. “Definition/Definition of the Situation.” In Sourcebook on Rhetoric: Key Concepts in Contemporary Rhetorical Studies, 151-160. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2001.

Kersten, Andrew E. Clarence Darrow: American Iconoclast. New York: Hill and Wang, 2011.

Majors, Randall E. “Clarence Darrow in Defense of Leopold and Loeb: A Case Study in Forensic Argumentation.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 1978.

Maloney, Martin. “Clarence Darrow.” In A History and Criticism of American Public Address, Vol 3. Ed. Marie Kathryn Hochmuth, 262-312. New York: Longmans, Green, 1955.

McCann, Bryan J. “Therapeutic and Material hood: Ideology and the Struggle for Meaning in the Illinois Death Penalty Controversy.” Communication and Critical/ Cultural Studies 4 (2007): 382-401.

McKernan, Maureen. The Amazing Crime and Trial of Leopold and Loeb. Birmingham, AL: Gryphon Editions, Inc., 1989.

McRae, Donald. The Last Trials of Clarence Darrow. New York: Harper Collins, 2009.

Morris, Charles E. “Passing by Proxy: Collusive and Convulsive Silence in the Trial of Leopold and Loeb.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 91 (2005): 264-290.

Rashkopf. Horace G. “The Speaking of Clarence Darrow.” In American Public Address. Ed. Loren Reid, 27-53. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1961.

Ravitz, Abe. Clarence Darrow and the American Literary Tradition. Cleveland, OH: Press of Case Western Reserve University, 1962.

Stone, Irving. Clarence Darrow for the Defense. London: Four Square Books, 1966.

Tierney, Kevin. Darrow: A Biography. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Publishers, 1979.

Weinberg, Arthur, ed. Attorney for the Damned. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957.

Audio-Visual Materials

Clarence Darrow. Directed by David W. Rintels. 2015. London, UK: Old Vic Theater, London. Play.

Compulsion. Directed by Richard Fleischer. 1959. Los Angeles, CA: Twentieth Century Fox, 2006. DVD.

IBM Presents Clarence Darrow Starring Henry Fonda. Directed by John Rich. 1974. New York: NBC Broadcasting. Television Movie.

Inherit the Wind. Directed by Stanley Kramer. 1960. Universal City, CA: Twentieth Century Fox, 2004. DVD.

Inherit the Wind. Directed by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee. 2009. London, UK: Old Vic Theater. London, UK. Television Movie.

On-line Resources

Darrow. Directed by John David Coles. 1991. Los Angeles, CA: KCET and Heus-Stept Productions. Accessed July 15, 2015, (Aired June 7, 1991 on PBS’s American Playhouse).

“Leopold and Loeb in the University Archives.” Northwestern University. Accessed July 20, 2015,

“The Clarence Darrow Digital Collection.” Law Library, University of Minnesota. Accessed July 18, 2015,

Last updated March 23, 2016