Allen, Robert L. “Reassessing the Internal (Neo)Colonialism Theory.” The Black Scholar 35 (Spring 2005): 2-11.

Andrews, James R., and David Zarefsky. Contemporary American Voices: Significant Speeches in American History, 1945-Present. New York: Longman Publishing, 1992.

Battle, Thomas C. Legacy: Treasures of Black History. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2006.

Blake, John. Children of the Movement. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books, 2004.

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1962-68. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Carmichael, Stokely. “At Morgan State.” In Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan Africanism. Ed. E.N. Minor, 61-76. New York: Random House, 1966.

_____. “Berkeley Speech.” In Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan Africanism. Ed. E.N. Minor, 45-60. New York: Random House, 1966.

_____. “Power & Racism.” In The Black Power Revolt. Ed. F.B. Barbour, 63-76. Boston, MA: Collier Books, 1968.

Carmichael, Stokely, with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell. Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). New York: Scribner, 2003.

Fager, Charles E. White Reflections on Black Power. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1967.

Gallagher, Victoria J. “Black Power in Berkeley: Postmodern Constructions in the Rhetoric of Stokely Carmichael.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 87 (May 2001): 144-157.

Haskins, James. Profiles in Black Power. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1972.

Hornsby Jr., Alton. Chronology of African-American History. Detroit, MI: Gale Research,
Inc., 1991.

Jefferson, Pat. “‘Stokely’s Cool’: Style.” Today’s Speech 16 (September 1968): 19-24.

Joseph, Peniel W. The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights/Black Power Era. New York: Routledge, 2006.

Levine, Michael L. Social Issues in American History Series: African Americans and Civil Rights. Phoenix, AZ: Oryz Press, 1996.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. Rebellion in the University. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1971.

Meier, August. Black Protest in the Sixties. Chicago, IL: Quadrangle Books, 1970.

Meier, August, Elliot Rudwick, and Francis Broderick, eds. Black Protest Thought in the Twentieth Century. New York: Bobbs Merrill Company, Inc., 1965.

Morris, Charles E. III, and Stephen H. Browne, eds. Readings on the Rhetoric of Social Protest. State College, PA.: Strata Publishing, 2001.

Ogbar, Jeffrey O.G. Black Power: Radical Politics and African American Identity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004.

Powledge, F. Black Power, White Resistance: Notes on the New Civil War. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing Co., 1967.

Roberts-Miller, Patricia. “Democracy, Demagoguery, and Critical Rhetoric.” Rhetoric
& Public Affairs
 8 (2005): 459-476.

Shawki, Ahmed. Black Liberation and Socialism. Chicago, IL: Haymarket Books, 2006.

Stewart, Charles J. “The Evolution of a Revolution: Stokely Carmichael and the Rhetoric of Black Power.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 83 (1997): 429-446.

Tucker, Sterling. Black Reflections on White Power. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1969.

Ture, Kwame, and Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Audio-Visual Materials 

Cammeron, Dwight. The Lowndes County Freedom Organization. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Center for Public Television, 1995. Video Recording.

Brysac, Shareen. 1968: A Look for New Meanings. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities, 1978. Video Recording.

On-Line Resources

“Black Power.” King Encyclopedia Entry. Online at

“Black Power Speech at the University of California, Berkeley.” Online at

“Civil Rights Movement Veterans.” Online at

“King Encyclopedia.” The Martin Luther King, Jr. Encyclopedia. Online at

“Nation of Islam.” Online at

“Stokely Carmichael.” FBI record. Online at

“Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998).” King Encyclopedia entry. Online at

“Stokely Carmichael: Black Power Speech.” Online at

“Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.” Nearly 3,000 pages of FBI reports. The group was investigated to determine the extent of communist infiltration. Online at

Last updated March 23, 2016