Grant Jacquelyn. Perspectives on Womanist Theology. Atlanta, GA: ITC Press, 1995.

Guy-Sheftall, Beverly. Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought. New York: The New Press, 1995.

Hankins, Gail. A. “In the Beginning… Maria W. Stewart: Forerunner of American Women Orators.” Women and Language 15.2 (1992):20-25.

Keetley, Dawn, and John Pettigrew. Public Women, Public Words: A Documentary History of American Feminism. Madison, WI: Madison House Press, 1997.

Kienzle, Beverly Mayne and Pamela J. Walker, eds. Women Preachers and Prophets Through Two Millennia of Christianity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

Logan, Shirley Wilson. We Are Coming: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999.

Mattina, Anne. “‘I am as a Bell That Cannot Ring’: Antebellum Women Oratory.” Women and Language, 16.2 (1993): 1-6.

Moody, Jocelyn. Sentimental Confessions: Spiritual Narratives of Nineteenth-Century Women. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. Classical Black Nationalism: From the American Revolution to MarcusGarvey. New York: New York University Press, 1996.

Peterson, Carla L. Doers of the Word: African-American Women Speakers and Writers in the North (1830-1880). New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Robertson, Susan. “Maria Stewart and Rhetoric of Mobility.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 4.3 (2003): 56-62.

Rycenga, Jennifer. “A Greater Awakening: Women’s Intellect As A Factor in Early Abolitionist Movements, 1824 – 1834.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 21.2 (2005): 31-59.

Streitmatter, Rodger. Raising Her Voice: African-American Women Journalists Who Changed History. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1994.

Wertheimer, Molly Meijer., ed. Listening to Their Voices: The Rhetorical Activities of Historical Women. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1997.

Zackodnik, Teresa C. “‘I Don’t Know How You Will Feel When I Get Through’: Racial Difference, Woman’s Rights, and Sojourner Truth.” Feminist Studies 30.1 (2004): 49-73.

Dissertations and Theses

Aikin, Kelly. Hissing and Reproach Among Her People: The Radical Abolitionist Rhetoric of Maria W. Miller Stewart.1996, M. A. Thesis Southwest Texas State University.

Alson, Monika R.The Rhetoric of Maria W. Stewart Hidden in Plain Sight. 2003 M.A. thesis, Pennsylvania State University.

Butler, Ruth Leon White. Double-Voice in the Rhetoric of African American Women. 1994, M.A. Thesis, Arizona State University.

Carlacio, Jami L. In Their Own Words: The Rhetorical Practices of Maria Stewart and Sarah Grimke. 2001, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin.

Cooper, Valerie Charlene. Word, Like Fire: The Biblical Hermeneutics of Maria Stewart. 2004, Th.D. Thesis, Harvard University.

Garcia, Jennifer. “Maria W. Stewart: American’s First Black Feminist,” Dissertation, Florida International University, FIU Digital Commons,

Glock, Aimee M. Two Steps Forward and One and a Half Steps Back: Maria Stewart and Mary AnnShadd Cary’s Fight for Inclusion Into Early Black Nationalism, 1803-1893. 2001, M. A. Thesis, University of California, Los Angeles.

Jackson, Jerma. Maria W. Stewart:Challenging the Barriers of Race and Gender.1986, M. A. Thesis, Tufts University.

Lintin, Daniel Paul.Shall It Be a Woman?: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Works of Maria W. Miller Stewart. 1989, M. A. Thesis, University of Minnesota.

Richmond, Colleen D. The Practical Preaching and Vital Voices of Margery Kempe, Margaret Fell, and Maria W. Stewart. 2003, Dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Sells, Laura R. The Rhetoric of Paradox in the Discourse of Maria W. Stewart. 1991, M. A. Thesis, University of South Florida.

Thompson, Julie M. Managing the Public/Private Dichotomy: Maria W. Stewart and the Problem of Rhetorical Status. 1991, M. A. Thesis, University of South Florida.

Townsend, Thelma Marie. Spiritual Autobiographies of Religious Activism by Black Women in the Antebellum Era. 1993, Dissertation, Michigan State University.

Young, Ida Delores. Between the Voices of Our Ancestors:Afrocentric Strategies, Symbols, Forms of Revolution, and the Philosophical Implications of the Rhetorical Discourse of Abolitionist Maria W. Stewart, 1803-1879. 1992, Temple University.

Audio-Visual Materials

Pellett, Gail. “Liberty in the Air,” episode 2. Slavery and the Making of America. New York: WNET/PBS, 2004.

On-Line Resources

Album and Track information, Ruby Dee recording of “Maria W. Stewart, What if I Am a Woman.”,

Boston African-American National Historic Site. National Park Service,

Connecticut Women’s Hall of Fame,

Heritage Guild:Honoring David Walker and Maria Stewart, Spencer Crew, CEO, Underground Railroad Freedom Center, WGBH,

Slavery and the Making of America. “On-line Resources,” PBS,

Last updated May 23, 2016.