Barton, William Eleazor, and Edward Everett. Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say; What He Said; What He Was Reported to have Said; What He Wished He Had Said. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1930.

Boritt, Gabor. The Gettysburg Gospel: The Speech that Nobody Knows. New York: Simon & Shuster, 2006.

Briggs, John Channing. Lincoln‘s Speeches Reconsidered. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Ellis, Richard. The Union at Risk. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Everett, Edward. Orations and Speeches on Various Occassions, by Edward Everett. 4 vol. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, and Company, 1870-1878.

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995; orig. 1970.

—. Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss, Jr. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994.

Gramm, Kent. November: Lincoln’s Elegy at Gettysburg. Bloomington: Indiana, University Press, 2001.

Lincoln, Abraham. Abraham Lincoln, His Speeches and Writings. Roy P. Basler, ed. Franklin Center, PA: Franklin Library, 1979.

Potter, David. The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.

Sandburg, Carl. Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years and the War Years. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1954.

Woodman, Harold D., ed. The Legacy of the American Civil War. New York: Wiley, 1973.

Audio-Visual Materials

Africans in America: America’s Journey through Slavery. South Burlington, VT: WGBH Boston Video, 2000. Video Recording.

Bell, Ed. Unchained Memories: Readings from the Slave Narratives. New York: HBO Video, 2003. Video Recording.

Burns, Ken. 1863: The Universe of Battle. Alexandria, VA.: PBS Video, 1999. Video Recording.

—. 1864: Valley of the Shadow of Death. Alexandria, VA.: PBS Video, 1999. Video Recording.

The Civil War: Vicksburg; Reconstruction. South Burlington, VT: Annenberg/ Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 2000. Video Recording.

This Far by Faith: African American Spiritual Journeys. Alexandria, VA: PBS Video, 2003. Video Recording.

Slavery: The South and Slave Culture; The Coming of the Civil War. S. Burlington, VT: Annenberg/Corporation for Public Broadcasting, 2000. Video Recording.

Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Ambrose Video Publishing, 2005. Video Recording.

On-Line Resources

“Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress.” Library of Congress, 2002, http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/malhome.html.

“American Civil War Collection at the Electronic Text Center.” University of Virginia, http://etext.virginia.edu/civilwar/.

“Battle Summary: Gettysburg, PA.” CWSAC Battle Summaries, The American Battlefield Protection Program, National Parks Service, 2006, https://www.nps.gov/abpp/battles/pa002.htm.

“Everett, Edward – Biographical Information.” Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=E000264.

“The Gettysburg Address.” Library of Congress, 2006, http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/gadd/.

“Gettysburg National Military Park.” National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006, http://www.nps.gov/gett.

“The Papers of Abraham Lincoln.” Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, 2006, http://www.papersofabrahamlincoln.org/.

Last updated May 3, 2016