On the Era

Antczak, Frederick J. Thought and Character: The Rhetoric of Democratic Education. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press, 1985.

Black, Edwin. “The Sentimental Style as Escapism, or the Devil with Dan’l Webster.” In Form and Genre: Shaping Rhetorical Action. Edited by Karlyn Kohrs Campbell and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Falls Church, VA: Speech Communication Association, n.d.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Americans: The National Experience. New York: Random House, 1967.

Browne, Stephen H. “Reading Public Memory in Daniel Webster’s Plymouth Rock Oration.” Western Journal of Communication, 57 (1993): 464-477.

Condit, Celeste Michelle. “The Functions of Epideictic.” Communication Quarterly 33, no. 4 (1985): 284-298.

Clark, Gregory, and S. Michael Halloran, eds. Oratorical Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Transformations in the Theory and Practice of Rhetoric. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993.

D’Emilio, John, and Estelle B. Freedman. Intimate Matters: A History of Sexuality in America. 2nd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1988/1997.

Jones, Arnita Arment. “From Utopia to Reform.” History Today 26, no. 6 (1976): 393-401.

Reid, Ronald F., and James F. Klumpp. American Rhetorical Discourse. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2005.

Voss, Cary R. W., and Robert Rowland. “Pre-Inception Rhetoric in the Creation of a Social Movement: The Case of Frances Wright.” Communication Studies 51, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 1-14.

On or By Frances “Fanny” Wright d’Arusmont

Bartlett, Elizabeth Ann. Liberty, Equality, Sorority: The Origins and Interpretation of American Feminist Thought: Frances Wright, Sarah Grimke, and Margaret Fuller. New York: Carlson, 1994.

D’Arusmont, Frances Wright. Views of Society and Manners in America, first edition. New York: E. Bliss & E. White, 1821.

Gilbert, Amos. Memoir of Frances Wright: The Pioneer Woman in the Cause of Human Rights. Cincinnati, OH: Longley Brothers, 1885.

Ginzberg, Lori D. “‘The Hearts of your Readers will Shudder’: Fanny Wright, Infidelity, and American Freethought.” American Quarterly 46, no. 2 (1994): 195-226.

Hillbruner, Anthony. “Frances Wright: Egalitarian Reformer.” Southern Speech Journal 23, no. 4 (1958): 193-203.

Kendall, Kathleen Edgerton, and Jeanne Y. Fisher. “Frances Wright on Women’s Rights.” The Quarterly Journal of Speech 60, no. 1 (1974): 58-68.

Kissel, Susan S. “Conservative Cincinnati and its Outspoken Women Writers.” Queen City Heritage 44, no. 1 (1986): 20.

Kissel, Susan S. In Common Cause: The “Conservative” Frances Trollope and the “Radical” Frances Wright. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1993.

Perkins, Alice J. G., and Theresa Wolfson. Frances Wright Free Enquirer: The Study of a Temperament. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1939.

Waterman, William Randall. Frances Wright. New York: AMS Press, 1967.

Wright, Frances. A Course of Public Lectures. New York: The Free Enquirer Press, 1829.

On Gender and the Nineteenth Century

Basch, Norma. “Marriage, Morals, and Politics in the Election of 1828.” Journal of American History 80, no. 3 (December 1993): 890-918.

Berry, Brian J. L. America’s Utopian Experiments: Communal Havens from Long-Wave Crises. Hanover: University Press of New England. 1992.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. Man Cannot Speak for Her, Volumes 1 & 2. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1989.

Flexner, Eleanor, and Ellen Fitzpatrick. Century of Struggle: The Woman’s Rights Movement in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Presidents and Fellows of Harvard College, 1959.

Matthews, Glenna. The Rise of Public Woman: Woman’s Power and Woman’s Place in the United States, 1630-1970. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

O’Connor, Lillian. Pioneer Women Orators: Rhetoric in the Ante-bellum Reform Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954.

Taylor, Barbara. Eve and the New Jerusalem: Socialism and Feminism in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Pantheon Books, 1983.

Rogness, Kate Zittlow. “The Intersectional Style of Free Love Rhetoric.” In Standing at the Intersections: Feminist Voices, Feminist Practices in Communication Studies. Edited by Karma R. Chavez and Cindy L. Griffin. 59-77. New York: SUNY Press, 2012.

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, Susan B. Anthony, and Matilda Joslyn Gage, eds. History of Woman Suffrage. Rochester, NY: Susan B. Anthony, 1889.

Stillion-Southard, Belinda A. Militant Citizenship: Rhetorical Strategies of the National Woman’s Party, 1913-1920. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2011.

Welter, Barbara. “The Cult of True Womanhood.” American Quarterly 18, no. 2 (1966): 151-174.

Zaeske, Susan. “The ‘Promiscuous Audience’ Controversy and the Emergence of the Early Woman’s Rights Movement.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 191-207.

On the Fourth of July

Appelbaum, Diana Karter. The Glorious Fourth: An American Holiday, An American History. New York: Facts on File, 1989.

Colaiaco, James A. Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2006.

De Bolla, Peter. The Fourth of July and the Founding of America. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press, 2008.

Goetsch, Paul, and Gerd Hurm, eds. The Fourth of July: Political Oratory and Literary Reactions, 1776- 1876. TuÌbingen: G. Narr, 1992.

Hawken, Henry A. Trumpets of Glory: Fourth of July Orations 1786-1861. Granby, CT: Salmon Brook Historical Society, 1976.

Larson, Cedric. “Patriotism in Carmine: 162 Years of July 4th Oratory.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 26, no. 1 (1940): 12-25.

Müller, Kurt. “Anti-Slavery Rhetoric on the Fourth of July: William Lloyd Garrison.” In The Fourth of July: Political Oratory and Literary Reactions, 1776- 1876. Edited by Paul Goetsch and Gerd Hurm. Tübingen: G. Narr, 1992.

Robertson, Andrew W. The Language of Democracy: Political Rhetoric in the United States and Britain, 1790-1900. Charlottesville, University of Virginia Press, 2005.

Schauffler, Robert Haven. Independence Day: Its Celebration, Spirit, and Significance as Related in Prose and Verse. Detroit, MI: Omnigraphics, 2000.

Travers, Len. Celebrating the Fourth: Independence Day and the Rites of Nationalism in the Early Republic. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1997.

Audio-Visual Materials

 Chen, Jeannie. “From the Archives: A Fourth of July with the Presidents.” White House Official Weblog, July 3, 2012.

“President [Theodore] Roosevelt’s Fourth of July Oration,” July 4, 1903.

On-Line Resources

Douglass, Frederick. “What to a Slave is the Fourth of July? At Rochester, July 5, 1852.” Teaching American History,

“Fanny Wright.” National Women’s Hall of Fame.

“Frances Wright.” Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello,

“Frances Wright.” Iowa State University Archives of Women’s Political Communication,

Grimshaw, Robert. The Fourth of July: Two Speeches Made by Invitation at the Picnics of the USOA Society of the American Colony of Berlin. Hannover, Germany: Printing Office of Janaeke Brothers, 1903. Online at Open Library

Holley, George Washington. “An Oration Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1839.” Open Library,

Landgrebe, Tyna. “Frances (Fanny) Wright.” Indiana Journalism Hall of Fame,

Last updated June 16, 2016.